To our readers: Here is a small study out of one of my unfinished commentaries. I do admit to the Acts Commentary being one of my many “irons in the fire” but hopefully, The Acts of the Apostles will soon be completed.
Acts 2:1 And when the day of Pentecost was fully come, they were all with one accord in one place.
Acts 2:2 And suddenly there came a sound from heaven as of a rushing mighty wind, and it filled all the house where they were sitting.
Acts 2:3 And there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, and it sat upon each of them.
Acts 2:4 And they were all filled with the Holy Ghost, and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit gave them utterance.
Acts 2:5 And there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews, devout men, out of every nation under heaven.
We have a figure of speech in 2:1-5. It is called a “polysyndeton” and indicates a related series of thoughts or terms connected by conjunctions. The King James Bible utilizes this little known figure in many places. What many uninformed readers think useless and repetitious, the figure is deliberately inspired, a special study help God has placed in His word. (See Genesis 1:2-26 for the first one). The first five verses of Chapter Two are linked by the Holy Spirit; this means the day of Pentecost is not to be separated from Jerusalem and Israel, nor is the baptism with the Holy Ghost and the event of tongues to be assigned to anyone other than Israel. There are a series of “Ands” that constitute the major figure and there are several minor “and(s)” throughout the five verses. All of them are related to the central theme of the passage: the feast of Pentecost, and all relate to Israel.
“And when the day of Pentecost”…”And there were dwelling at Jerusalem Jews…”. Five (5) major “Ands” connect the thoughts of 2:1, 2, 3, 4, 5, along with three (3) others within the verses: “And when the day of Pentecost” “And suddenly there came a sound…and it” (v2) “And there appeared…and it” (v3) “And they were all filled…and began” “And there were dwelling” (v.4).
Israel came together for the Feast of Pentecost at Jerusalem. All of the phrases are related and are to be seen as a united whole. To make Pentecost a New Testament Church Feast day or to force it into a private religious experience is to completely miss the message of Pentecost. Pentecost is a unique Feast that the LORD gave to the nation of Israel, and the events and people are all interrelated with the other six (6) major Feasts of the LORD. (Leviticus 23).
In other words, although the baptism with the Holy Ghost that occurs in Acts 2 is a new event, it is not separated from Israel and the Feast of Pentecost, along with the prophetic importance. The baptism with the Spirit, the scriptural OT connection with Pentecost, and the fact that it is the nation of Israel’s feast cannot be removed from the historic OT base, future prophecy, and reassigned to a church celebration or some individual experience. There is not one Bible reference in the Old Testament or the New Testament that states Pentecost is a day to be continually observed during this present Church Age. There is no reasonable exegesis of Acts 2 that would justify Pentecost being a private, personal experience of the child of God. All that happened on this Pentecost was prophesied and even promised in clear and plain language that fits perfectly with all types and shadows that preceded that Jewish Feast Day. The seven Feasts of the LORD were not given as mere ritualistic exercises or limited to the Law of Moses; the Feasts form a prophetic forecast and vital part of the nation of Israel’s future blessings after this present Church Age.
The “baptism with the Holy Ghost” in Acts 2 is not to be confused with the “baptism by the Spirit” in 1 Corinthians 12:13. The Lord Jesus Christ is the One who baptizes in Acts 2; the Holy Spirit is the One who baptizes in 1 Corinthians 12:13. These baptisms are dealt with in detail in this commentary in Acts 10.
“Pentecost” is a Greek term meaning “50th”. This usage of the Greek language with passages and terms associated with Israel should not be alarming. Israel’s history is combined with her own Hebrew tongue, as well as Arabic, Greek, English and other Gentile languages. Although Hebrew is the nation’s native tongue, Israel’s disobedience and the LORD’s judgments upon the nation brought them into direct contact with various cultures and the languages of the Gentiles. (…continued in the Acts Commentary.)
The Bible definition of restitution is payment for something misused, whether it is defined in the Hebrew, Greek or English. Restitution under the Law of Moses demands the return or compensation to the owner of that which was lost, stolen, abused, or damaged.
If the sun be risen upon him, there shall be blood shed for him; for he should make full restitution; if he have nothing, then he shall be sold for his theft. (Exodus 22:3 KJV)
If a man shall cause a field or vineyard to be eaten, and shall put in his beast, and shall feed in another man’s field; of the best of his own field, and of the best of his own vineyard, shall he make restitution. (Exodus 22:5 KJV)
If fire break out, and catch in thorns, so that the stacks of corn, or the standing corn, or the field, be consumed therewith; he that kindled the fire shall surely make restitution. (Exodus 22:6 KJV)
And if it be stolen from him, he shall make restitution unto the owner thereof. (Exodus 22:12 KJV)
That which he laboured for shall he restore, and shall not swallow it down: according to his substance shall the restitution be, and he shall not rejoice therein. (Job 20:18 KJV)
Whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world began. (Acts 3:21 KJV).
This definition is very important in prophetic studies, especially in the context of its usage. Look at Acts 3 and what Peter says:
Act 3:19 Repent ye therefore, and be converted, that your sins may be blotted out, when the times of refreshing shall come from the presence of the Lord;
Act 3:20 And he shall send Jesus Christ, which before was preached unto you:
Act 3:21 Whom the heaven must receive until the times of restitution of all things, which God hath spoken by the mouth of all his holy prophets since the world began.
Peter is preaching to the men of the nation of Israel (Acts 3:12) who agreed with their leaders in rejection and crucifixion of Christ. Jesus ascended back into heaven after His resurrection and the promise is that He will return.
John 14:3 And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and receive you unto myself; that where I am, there ye may be also.
Acts 1:11 Which also said, Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? this same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven.
Peter deals with the most important issue first: Israel’s (not the sinner in the age of grace) sins blotted out. This remission of sins will occur “when the times of refreshing come”. Of importance to notice, is that this blotting out or remission, total removal of sins, can not happen BEFORE (until ) Jesus returns, “when the times of refreshing” will come to Israel. These “times” will not happen without the Lord’s first returning to Israel.
So we see TWO “times” spoken of in Acts 3:19-21: one of “refreshing” and one of “restitution” (payment for wrong done): one of blessing and one that demands a payment to be made BEFORE the blessing. Correct prophetic interpretation of the Bible depends upon believing both will literally occur. But, correct interpretation demands that each of these “times” be properly defined by Bible usage and context.
Peter tells the men of Israel that God the Father will “send Jesus Christ which before was preached unto you: whom heaven must receive until (BEFORE) the times of restitution of all things.” Does this mean the Jesus Christ will come BEFORE “the times of restitution”? No, a thousand times, “No!” Some try to make the return of Jesus be BEFORE, simply because they only see the preposition “until”. The preposition does not control a sentence–context does…
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